Apartheid in South Africa- Terminale- Anglais - Maxicours

Apartheid in South Africa

Objectif

Découvrir la période de l'Apartheid en Afrique du Sud.

Points clés
  • Des colons hollandais, appelés Boers, fondent Le Cap en 1652. Ils sont bientôt rejoints par des colons britanniques.
  • En afrikaans, langue dérivée du néerlandais, apartheid signifie développement séparé. Il s'agit d'une politique de ségrégation visant une séparations des différents groupes ethniques. Le pouvoir et l'économie restant entre les mains de la seule population blanche.
  • Des territoires noirs sont mis en place, afin que la population de couleur ne se mêle pas aux blancs. Les personnes de couleur n'avaient aucun droit et vivaient dans des townships (ghettos).
  • Les mouvements clandestins, tels que le Congrès national africain, ont travaillé au démantèlement de l'apartheid. Des militants noirs ont été arrêtés, torturés et tués.
  •  En 1989, Frederik W. De Klerk est élu président. Il libère le chef de l'ANC, Nelson Mandela et démarre des pourparlers pour la paix.
  • Les premières élections où tous les Sud-Africains peuvent voter ont lieu en 1994 : Mandela est élu président de la République d'Afrique du Sud. 
1. A brief history of South Africa
Situated at the southern tip of the continent of Africa, the region was first colonized by Dutch settlers who founded Cape Town in 1652. These people were known as the Boers.
English settlers soon joined them and Cape Town became an important trading post on the route to India.

The end of the eighteenth century saw a period of unrest, with wars between the Boers and African tribes such as the Bantus and the Zulus.
Cape Town became a British possession in 1814, and the British began to settle in surrounding regions, which were then called British South Africa.

The Boer war (1899-1902) was a conflict between the British and the Boers. Britain won.
This led to the setting up of the South African Union in 1910. It was a British dominion of the Commonwealth, with its own government under British rule.
It remained so until the Republic of South Africa was proclaimed in 1961.

2. Apartheid
Apartheid means "separate development" in Afrikaans, the white South African language derived from Dutch.

In 1948, Afrikaaners were elected to govern the dominion, and they implemented the apartheid policy, which consisted in separating the whites from other ethnic groups.
Tribal and traditional African ways were recognized by the Black Authorities Act of 1951, and allowed to develop in exclusively black homelands.
In 1959, the Black Self-Government Act gave the basis for the independence of the nine ethnic groups identified in the country. Black homelands or territories were set up, so that the colored population would not mix with the whites.

Colored people had no rights, and lived in townships (ghettos). They had to carry an internal passport if they wished to travel out of their homelands.
Finding decent jobs was very difficult for them. Their schools and hospitals were second-rate, and they lived in constant fear of the white police and armed forces.

Apartheid meant total segregation between the races in South Africa, with the power and the economy firmly in the hands of the white population.

3. The Republic of South Africa
In 1960, the independence of South Africa was put to the vote in a whites-only election. Fifty-two per cent of the people chose to leave the Commonwealth and the country became a republic. Charles-Robert Swart was elected its first president in 1961.

Meanwhile, black dissatisfaction was growing. Clandestine movements, such as the African National Congress, worked at dismantling apartheid.
Black activists were arrested, tortured and killed.
Pressure from the United Nations and a world-wide embargo on South African trade helped the fight against apartheid.

Finally when Frederik W. De Klerk was elected president in 1989, he freed ANC leader Nelson Mandela and began peace talks with the black leaders.

The Manifesto for a New South Africa published in 1991 meant the end of apartheid. De Klerk and Mandela obtained the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize for their work.
In 1994 after an election in which all South Africans could vote for the first time ever, Nelson Mandela was elected president of the new Republic of South Africa.

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