Malcolm X - Maxicours
1. From Malcolm Little to Malcolm X
Malcolm X was born in 1925 and died in 1965. He was an African-American leader. His real name was Malcolm Little.

He joined a movement called the Black Muslims in 1952, an organisation which was formed in 1930 and called for the separation of Blacks from mainstream society.

Malcolm Little changed his name to Malcolm X and became the leader of the movement in 1963.

2. His means to reach his goals
Malcolm X and his organisation wanted to create a separate African-American nation and he encouraged them to defend themselves in violent ways.

Contrary to Martin Luther King who advocated non-violence, Malcolm X advocated violence for Black people to obtain what they wanted. According to Malcolm X, non-violence could not permit Blacks to obtain what they wanted – only violent methods could. That's the reason why they opted for revolutionary violence and self-defence.

3. From radical methods to a peaceful approach
As time went by, Malcolm X's methods changed. He began to be in favour of less violent actions.

In 1964 he left the Black Muslims to establish the Organisation of Afro-American Unity, declaring that he was in the favour of peace between the races.

He was murdered (most probably by Black Muslims) in Harlem, New York, after a pilgrimage to Mecca, where he saw religious black and white Muslims together in harmony and adopted a less confrontational approach.

Spike Lee directed a film, Malcolm X (1992) with Denzel Washington in the main role.

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