a. The birth
Between 1910 and 1915
, the movie industry left New York
monopoly on licences to go to Hollywood
, and the landscape
could be shot on location: sophisticated studio material was no
more necessary. Besides the labor force was very numerous.
Right from the beginning, the western as well as the slapstick comedy –
which was very popular among immigrant groups –
made Hollywood's success.
With the development of the movie industry, appeared a need for
concentration. Paramount, the first major (that
is the biggest company), was thus founded by Adolph
Zukor just after World War One.
b. The 1920s
Cinema was the most popular leisure activity
and Hollywood films
were widely broadcast overseas
. Hollywood then became very
attractive to directors and actors alike.
It also became very excessive. In 1930, widespread criticisms
on contents and titles led to the adoption of the Hays'
code which was to serve as a guideline for
producers. The foundation of the "Academy of Motion
Picture Arts and Sciences" (January 1927) also contributed
to create a new image for the industry.
Meanwhile, Fox and Warner experimented with sound and in 1927 the first
talkie was released. Fox then developed Movietone
techniques. The sound changed the acting style and the way of writing scripts.
3. The 1930s
Most screenwriters such as Dashiell Hammet
from New York. It was the climax of the star and studio
. The majors were powerful and prided themselves on
their All Stars Movies.
After the sound, the industry focused on color and the
Technicolor era started in 1935. Hollywood had
then really become the dream industry.
But the honeymoon was to end with the end of the
Second World War.
2. The decline
a. The 1950s
The "Witch Hunt
" (la « chasse aux
), cf. Mac Carthy), which
started in Hollywood in 1947
, saw the exodus of many
screenwriters and writers
At the same time, the studios were accused of violating the
anti-trust legislation and had to accept divorcement
(that is separation of the different activities of the movies
Finally, the birth of television confronted
Hollywood with a new technological challenge. It relied
on Cinemascope but people seemed to prefer their TV
sets. Movies tended to be shot away from Hollywood, which
annouced its decline.
b. From the 1960s onward
In the sixties, New York seemed to be the place to be but the
late seventies and early eighties
proved that Hollywood was
not dead yet. It now served as a reference for a new generation
of movie makers whose films
fed on the early years of the myth.