Hollywood- Terminale- Anglais - Maxicours

Hollywood

Objectif

Approfondir ses connaissances sur Hollywood.

Points clés
  • Les paysages variés et les prix bons marchés attirèrent l'industrie du cinéma à Hollywood dès les années 1910. La création de la Paramount remonte à cette époque.
  • Le succès arrive vite avec les Western et les comédies burlesques. Les films qui y sont produits sont même exportés à l'étranger.
  • Dans les années 1920, les studios de la Fox et de la Warner commencent à insérer le son dans leurs films. L'arrivée du parlant changea la façon de jouer des acteurs et d'écrire des scénaristes.
  • En 1935, c'est au tour de la couleur de faire son entrée dans le monde du cinéma.;
  • Mais cet âge d'or prit fin dans les années 1950, pour deux raisons :
    • l'exode de scénaristes qui fuyaient la « chasse aux sorcières ».
    • la démocratisation des téléviseurs dans les foyers.
  • Depuis quelques décennies, le mythe d'Hollywood semble renaître de ses cendres et inspirent la nouvelle génération de réalisateurs. 
1. The honeymoon
a. The birth of Hollywood
Between 1910 and 1915, the movie industry left New York and Edison's monopoly on licences to go to Hollywood where the land was cheap, and the landscape so varied that movies could be shot on location: sophisticated studio material was no more necessary. Besides the labor force was very numerous.

Right from the beginning, the western as well as the slapstick comedy – which was very popular among immigrant groups – made Hollywood's success.

With the development of the movie industry, appeared a need for concentration. Paramount, the first major (that is the biggest company), was thus founded by Adolph Zukor just after World War One.

b. The 1920s
Cinema was the most popular leisure activity and Hollywood films were widely broadcast overseas. Hollywood then became very attractive to directors and actors alike.

It also became very excessive. In 1930, widespread criticisms on contents and titles led to the adoption of the Hays' code which was to serve as a guideline for producers. The foundation of the "Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences" (January 1927) also contributed to create a new image for the industry.

Meanwhile, Fox and Warner experimented with sound and in 1927 the first talkie was released. Fox then developed Movietone techniques. The sound changed the acting style and the way of writing scripts.

c. The 1930s
Most screenwriters such as Dashiell Hammet were writers from New York. It was the climax of the star and studio systems. The majors were powerful and prided themselves on their All Stars Movies.

After the sound, the industry focused on color and the Technicolor era started in 1935. Hollywood had then really become the dream industry.
But the honeymoon was to end with the end of the Second World War.

2. The decline
a. The 1950s
The "Witch Hunt" (la « chasse aux sorcières », cf. Mac Carthy), which started in Hollywood in 1947, saw the exodus of many screenwriters and writers.

At the same time, the studios were accused of violating the anti-trust legislation and had to accept divorcement (that is separation of the different activities of the movies industry).

Finally, the birth of television confronted Hollywood with a new technological challenge. It relied on Cinemascope but people seemed to prefer their TV sets. Movies tended to be shot away from Hollywood, which annouced its decline.

b. From the 1960s onward
In the sixties, New York seemed to be the place to be but the late seventies and early eighties proved that Hollywood was not dead yet. It now served as a reference for a new generation of movie makers whose films fed on the early years of the myth.

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