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- 1. Discrimination
- 2. Affirmative action
- 3. The questioning of Affirmative action
For most of this century, discrimination has prevailed in the USA against minorities such as some ethnic groups (Blacks, Hispanics, American-Indians, Asian-Americans) or women.
The 13th, 14th and 15th amendments of the American Constitution were meant to forbid racial discrimination and ensure an equal protection under the law for all citizens in the USA. Nevertheless, this was not enough to avoid prejudice referring to race or ethnic origin, age, gender, or religion.
Before the 60's, employment opportunity was greatly restricted for these minorities, who were offered low wage jobs, even if they were college-educated. Afro-Americans who could attend colleges entered segregated institutions whereas Asian-Americans and Hispanics were legally prevented from attending some public schools. Access to some occupations was barred by laws for women, who were often segregated into unskilled jobs.
2. Affirmative action
In the 1960's, the government decided to undertake a decisive action in order to remedy the effect of ...